Thread: The N00bâà ƒÂ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã ‚¬Ã¢ââ⠚¬Å¾Ã‚¢s Guide To a Whole Load Of Electric Stuff

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  1. #1 The N00bâà ƒÂ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã ‚¬Ã¢ââ⠚¬Å¾Ã‚¢s Guide To a Whole Load Of Electric Stuff 
    Senior Member I Modded My PSP nonom's Avatar
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    (I donâà ’¢â€šÃ €šÃ‚¬ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â†šÂ¬Ã…¾Ã‚¢t expect anyone to read this whole thing, but if youâà ’¢â€šÃ €šÃ‚¬ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â†šÂ¬Ã…¾Ã‚¢re interested in electronics, seek and you shall find the answer. Also, if you have anything you think I should add, send me a PM.)


    Electric Circuit, path of an electric current. The term is usually taken to mean a continuous path composed of conductors and conducting devices and including a source of electromotive force that drives the current around the circuit. A circuit of this type is termed a closed circuit, and a circuit in which the current path is not continuous is called an open circuit. A short circuit is a closed circuit in which a direct connection is made, with no appreciable resistance, inductance, or capacitance, between the terminals of the source of electromotive force.

    Current flows in an electric circuit in accordance with several definite laws. The basic law of current flow is Ohm's law, named for its discoverer, the German physicist Georg Ohm. Ohm's law states that the amount of current flowing in a circuit made up of pure resistances is directly proportional to the electromotive force impressed on the circuit and inversely proportional to the total resistance of the circuit. The law is usually expressed by the formula I = V/R, where I is the current in amperes, V is the electromotive force in volts, and R is the resistance in ohms. Ohm's law applies to all electric circuits for both direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC), but additional principles must be invoked for the analysis of complex circuits and for AC circuits also involving inductances and capacitances.

    A series circuit is one in which the devices or elements of the circuit are arranged in such a way that the entire current (I) passes through each element without division or branching into parallel circuits.

    When two or more resistances are in series in a circuit, the total resistance may be calculated by adding the values of such resistances. If the resistances are in parallel, the total value of the resistance in the circuit is given by the formula

    In a parallel circuit, electrical devices, such as incandescent lamps or the cells of a battery, are arranged to allow all positive (+) poles, electrodes, and terminals to be joined to one conductor, and all negative ( ) ones to another conductor, so that each unit is, in effect, on a parallel branch. The value of two equal resistances in parallel is equal to half the value of the component resistances, and in every case the value of resistances in parallel is less than the value of the smallest of the individual resistances involved. In AC circuits, or circuits with varying currents, circuit components other than resistance must be considered.


    If a circuit has a number of interconnected branches, two other laws are applied in order to find the current flowing in the various branches. These laws, discovered by the German physicist Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, are known as Kirchhoff's laws of networks. The first of Kirchhoff's laws states that at any junction in a circuit through which a steady current is flowing, the sum of the currents flowing to the point is equal to the sum of the currents flowing away from that point. The second law states that, starting at any point in a network and following any closed path back to the starting point, the net sum of the electromotive forces encountered will be equal to the net sum of the products of the resistances encountered and the currents flowing through them. This second law is simply an extension of Ohm's law.

    The application of Ohm's law to circuits in which there is an alternating current is complicated by the fact that capacity and inductance are always present. Inductance makes the peak value of an alternating current lag behind the peak value of voltage; capacitance makes the peak value of voltage lag behind the peak value of the current. Capacitance and inductance inhibit the flow of alternating current and must be taken into account in calculating current flow. The current in AC circuits can be determined graphically by means of vectors or by means of the algebraic equation

    in which L is inductance, C is capacitance, and f is the frequency of the current. The quantity in the denominator of the fraction is called the impedance of the circuit to alternating current and is sometimes represented by the letter Z; then Ohm's law for AC circuits is expressed by the simple equation I = V/Z.

    Circuit Board, flat piece of nonconductive material on which computer microprocessors and other electric components are mounted and electrically connected by thin strips of metal.

    Wi-Fi, an abbreviation for wireless fidelity, is a wireless communication technology that can provide connections between portable computers and wired connections to the Internet. To connect users with the Internet, Wi Fi devices use low power transmitters and receivers equipped with special computer chips containing radio modems. The chips can be installed in laptop computers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and cellular telephones.


    Radio modems provide the same functions as modems that operate with conventional wire based networks: They modulate and demodulate signals to mimic digital bit streams, the same format used by computers. Wi Fi equipped computers, cell phones, and PDAs provide mobile, wireless access to e mail and Internet sites. The radio modems must be in range of a Wi Fi device containing a transmitter and receiver that is connected to a landline providing Internet access. Areas within range of a Wi Fi transmitter and receiver are known as hot spots. Current technical standards limit the range to distances of about 90 m (300 ft). Many transmitters, however, can be linked to cover a wider area, such as an airport or hotel. Current Wi Fi standards enable data to be sent at high speeds ranging from 11 to 54 megabits per second. This is known as a broadband connection because a vast amount of data can be sent quickly. A new technology known as WiMax promises to extend the range of a transmitter and receiver to about 48 km (30 mi). The WiMax technology also expands the capabilities of broadband connections by enabling users to remain connected to Internet hot spots even when traveling in an automobile or train at speeds up to 250 km/h (155 mph).

    Capacitors, or electrical condenser, device for storing an electrical charge. In its simplest form a capacitor consists of two metal plates separated by a nonconducting layer called the dielectric. When one plate is charged with electricity from a direct current or electrostatic source, the other plate will have induced in it a charge of the opposite sign; that is, positive if the original charge is negative and negative if the charge is positive. The Leyden jar is a simple form of capacitor in which the two conducting plates are metal foil coatings on the inside and outside of a glass bottle or jar that serves as the dielectric. The electrical size of a capacitor is its capacitance, the amount of electric charge it can hold.

    Capacitors are limited in the amount of electric charge they can absorb; they can conduct direct current for only an instant but function well as conductors in alternating current circuits. This property makes them useful when direct current must be prevented from entering some part of an electric circuit. Fixed capacity and variable capacity capacitors are used in conjunction with coils as resonant circuits in radios and other electronic equipment. Large capacitors are also employed in power lines to resonate the load on the line and make it possible for the line to transmit more power.

    Capacitors are produced in a wide variety of forms. Air, mica, ceramics, paper, oil, and vacuums are used as dielectrics, depending on the purpose for which the device is intended.


    I think I should include some HTML and other programming language descriptions in this, so if you are big on that kind of stuff, email me at nonom329@aim.com


    P.S. Hope this helps!! I have more to add but I could not get in in one post...
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  2. #2  
    Senior Member I Modded My PSP nonom's Avatar
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    I know, I'm double posting.

    Integrated Circuits are small pieces, or ÃƒÆ’Ã†â€™Ãƒâ€šÃ‚Â¢ÃƒÆ Ã‚Â¢ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…Â¡Ãƒâ šÃ‚Â¬ÃƒÆ’Ã¢â‚¬Â¦ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â €šÂ¬Ã…“chips,à ƒâ€šÃ‚¢ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â €šÂ¬Ã…¡Ã‚¬Ãà ¢â‚¬Å¡? of silicon, perhaps 2 to 4 sq mm (0.08 to 0.15 sq in) long, in which transistors are fabricated. Photolithography enables the designer to create tens of thousands of transistors on a single chip by proper placement of the many n type and p type regions. These are interconnected with very small conducting paths during fabrication to produce complex special purpose circuits. Such integrated circuits are called monolithic because they are fabricated on a single crystal of silicon. Chips require much less space and power and are cheaper to manufacture than an equivalent circuit built by employing individual transistors.

    Resistors
    If a battery is connected across a conducting material, a certain amount of current will flow through the material. This current is dependent on the voltage of the battery, on the dimensions of the sample, and on the conductivity of the material itself. Resistors with known resistance are used for current control in electronic circuits. The resistors are made from carbon mixtures, metal films, or resistance wire and have two connecting wires attached. Variable resistors, with an adjustable sliding contact arm, are often used to control volume on radios and television sets.

    Inductors consist of a conducting wire wound into the form of a coil. When a current passes through the coil, a magnetic field is set up around it that tends to oppose rapid changes in current intensity. As a capacitor, an inductor can be used to distinguish between rapidly and slowly changing signals. When an inductor is used in conjunction with a capacitor, the voltage in the inductor reaches a maximal value for a specific frequency. This principle is used in a radio receiver, where a specific frequency is selected by a variable capacitor.

    Sensing Devices and Transducers
    Measurements of mechanical, thermal, electrical, and chemical quantities are made by devices called sensors and transducers. The sensor is responsive to changes in the quantity to be measured, for example, temperature, position, or chemical concentration. The transducer converts such measurements into electrical signals, which, usually amplified, can be fed to instruments for the readout, recording, or control of the measured quantities. Sensors and transducers can operate at locations remote from the observer and in environments unsuitable or impractical for humans.

    Some devices act as both sensor and transducer. A thermocouple has two junctions of wires of different metals; these generate a small electric voltage that depends on the temperature difference between the two junctions. A thermistor is a special resistor, the resistance of which varies with temperature. A variable resistor can convert mechanical movement into an electrical signal. Specially designed capacitors are used to measure distance, and photocells are used to detect light. Other devices are used to measure velocity, acceleration, or fluid flow. In most instances, the electric signal is weak and must be amplified by an electronic circuit.

    Power Supply Circuits
    Most electronic equipment requires DC voltages for its operation. These can be provided by batteries or by internal power supplies that convert alternating current as available at the home electric outlet, into regulated DC voltages. The first element in an internal DC power supply is a transformer, which steps up or steps down the input voltage to a level suitable for the operation of the equipment. A secondary function of the transformer is to provide electrical ground insulation of the device from the power line to reduce potential shock hazards. The transformer is then followed by a rectifier, normally a diode. In the past, vacuum diodes and a wide variety of different materials such as germanium crystals or cadmium sulfide were employed in the low power rectifiers used in electronic equipment. Today silicon rectifiers are used almost exclusively because of their low cost and their high reliability.


    Fluctuations and ripples superimposed on the rectified DC voltage (noticeable as a hum in a malfunctioning audio amplifier) can be filtered out by a capacitor; the larger the capacitor, the smaller is the amount of ripple in the voltage. More precise control over voltage levels and ripples can be achieved by a voltage regulator, which also makes the internal voltages independent of fluctuations that may be encountered at an outlet. A simple, often used voltage regulator is the zener diode. It consists of a solid state p n junction diode, which acts as an insulator up to a predetermined voltage; above that voltage it becomes a conductor that bypasses excess voltages. More sophisticated voltage regulators are usually constructed as integrated circuits.

    Amplifier Circuits
    Electronic amplifiers are used mainly to increase the voltage, current, or power of a signal. A linear amplifier provides signal amplification with little or no distortion, so that the output is proportional to the input. A nonlinear amplifier may produce a considerable change in the waveform of the signal. Linear amplifiers are used for audio and video signals, whereas nonlinear amplifiers find use in oscillators, power electronics, modulators, mixers, logic circuits, and other applications where an amplitude cutoff is desired. Although vacuum tubes played a major role in amplifiers in the past, today either discrete transistor circuits or integrated circuits are mostly used.

    Audio Amplifiers
    Audio amplifiers, such as are found in radios, television sets, citizens band (CB) radios, and cassette recorders, are generally operated at frequencies below 20 kilohertz (1 kHz = 1000 cycles/sec). They amplify the electrical signal, which then is converted to sound in a loudspeaker. Operational amplifiers (op amps), built with integrated circuits and consisting of DC coupled, multistage, linear amplifiers are popular for audio amplifiers.

    Video Amplifiers
    Video amplifiers are used mainly for signals with a frequency spectrum range up to 6 megahertz (1 MHz = 1 million cycles/sec). The signal handled by the amplifier becomes the visual information presented on the television screen, with the signal amplitude regulating the brightness of the spot forming the image on the screen. To achieve its function, a video amplifier must operate over a wide band and amplify all frequencies equally and with low distortion.

    Radio Frequency Amplifiers
    These amplifiers boost the signal level of radio or television communication systems. Their frequencies generally range from 100 kHz to 1 GHz (1 billion cycles/sec = 1 gigahertz) and can extend well into the microwave frequency range.

    Oscillators generally consist of an amplifier and some type of feedback: The output signal is fed back to the input of the amplifier. The frequency determining elements may be a tuned inductance capacitance circuit or a vibrating crystal. Crystal controlled oscillators offer the highest precision and stability. Oscillators are used to produce audio and radio signals for a wide variety of purposes. For example, simple audio frequency oscillators are used in modern push button telephones to transmit data to the central telephone station for dialing. Audio tones generated by oscillators are also found in alarm clocks, radios, electronic organs, computers, and warning systems. High frequency oscillators are used in communications equipment to provide tuning and signal detection functions. Radio and television stations use precise high frequency oscillators to produce transmitting frequencies.
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  3. #3  
    Senior Member I Modded My PSP nonom's Avatar
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    OMG TRIPLE POST!!

    Switching and timing circuits, or logic circuits, form the heart of any device where signals must be selected or combined in a controlled manner. Applications of these circuits include telephone switching, satellite transmissions, and digital computer operations.

    Digital logic is a rational process for making simple ÃƒÆ’Ã†â€™Ãƒâ€šÃ‚Â¢ÃƒÆ Ã‚Â¢ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…Â¡Ãƒâ šÃ‚Â¬ÃƒÆ’Ã¢â‚¬Â¦ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â €šÂ¬Ã…“trueÃƒÆ’à ‚Â¢ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â⠚¬Å¡Ã‚¬Ãâ €š? or ÃƒÆ’Ã†â€™Ãƒâ€šÃ‚Â¢ÃƒÆ Ã‚Â¢ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…Â¡Ãƒâ šÃ‚Â¬ÃƒÆ’Ã¢â‚¬Â¦ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â €šÂ¬Ã…“falseÃà ƒâ€šÃ‚¢ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â⠀šÂ¬Ã…¡Ã‚Â¬Ãƒà €š? decisions based on the rules of Boolean algebra. ÃƒÆ’Ã†â€™Ãƒâ€šÃ‚Â¢ÃƒÆ Ã‚Â¢ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…Â¡Ãƒâ šÃ‚Â¬ÃƒÆ’Ã¢â‚¬Â¦ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â €šÂ¬Ã…“TrueÃƒÆ’à ‚Â¢ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â⠚¬Å¡Ã‚¬Ãâ €š? can be represented by a 1 and ÃƒÆ’Ã†â€™Ãƒâ€šÃ‚Â¢ÃƒÆ Ã‚Â¢ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…Â¡Ãƒâ šÃ‚Â¬ÃƒÆ’Ã¢â‚¬Â¦ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â €šÂ¬Ã…“falseÃà ƒâ€šÃ‚¢ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â⠀šÂ¬Ã…¡Ã‚Â¬Ãƒà €š? by a 0, and in logic circuits the numerals appear as signals of two different voltages. Logic circuits are used to make specific true false decisions based on the presence of multiple true false signals at the inputs. The signals may be generated by mechanical switches or by solid state transducers. Once the input signal has been accepted and conditioned (to remove unwanted electrical signals, or ÃƒÆ’Ã†â€™Ãƒâ€šÃ‚Â¢ÃƒÆ Ã‚Â¢ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…Â¡Ãƒâ šÃ‚Â¬ÃƒÆ’Ã¢â‚¬Â¦ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â €šÂ¬Ã…“noiseÃà ƒâ€šÃ‚¢ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â⠀šÂ¬Ã…¡Ã‚Â¬Ãƒà €š?), it is processed by the digital logic circuits. The various families of digital logic devices, usually integrated circuits, perform a variety of logic functions through logic gates, including ÃƒÆ’Ã†â€™Ãƒâ€šÃ‚Â¢ÃƒÆ Ã‚Â¢ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…Â¡Ãƒâ šÃ‚Â¬ÃƒÆ’Ã¢â‚¬Â¦ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â €šÂ¬Ã…“OR,Ãà ‚¢Ã¢ââ⠚¬Å¡Ã‚¬Ãâ ‚¬Å¡?à¢ÃƒÆ’¢â€Å ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚¬Ãƒâ€š?AN D,ÃƒÆ’Ã†â€™Ãƒâ€šÃ‚Â¢ÃƒÆ ’¢â€šÃ⠀šÃ‚¬Ãƒâ€š? and ÃƒÆ’Ã†â€™Ãƒâ€šÃ‚Â¢ÃƒÆ Ã‚Â¢ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…Â¡Ãƒâ šÃ‚Â¬ÃƒÆ’Ã¢â‚¬Â¦ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â €šÂ¬Ã…“NOT,ÃƒÆ’à ‚Â¢ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â⠚¬Å¡Ã‚¬Ãâ €š? and combinations of these (such as ÃƒÆ’Ã†â€™Ãƒâ€šÃ‚Â¢ÃƒÆ Ã‚Â¢ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â€šÂ¬Ã…Â¡Ãƒâ šÃ‚Â¬ÃƒÆ’Ã¢â‚¬Â¦ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â €šÂ¬Ã…“NOR,ÃƒÆ’à ‚Â¢ÃƒÂ¢Ã¢â⠚¬Å¡Ã‚¬Ãâ €š? which includes both OR and NOT). One widely used logic family is the transistor transistor logic (TTL). Another family is the complementary metal oxide semiconductor logic (CMOS), which performs similar functions at very low power levels but at slightly lower operating speeds. Several other, less popular families of logic circuits exist, including the currently obsolete resistor transistor logic (RTL) and the emitter coupled logic (ELC), the latter used for very high speed systems.

    The elemental blocks in a logic device are called digital logic gates. An AND gate has two or more inputs and a single output. The output of an AND gate is true only if all the inputs are true. An OR gate has two or more inputs and a single output. The output of an OR gate is true if any one of the inputs is true and is false if all of the inputs are false. An INVERTER has a single input and a single output terminal and can change a true signal to a false signal, thus performing the NOT function. More complicated logic circuits are built up from elementary gates. They include flip flops (binary switches), counters, comparators, adders, and more complex combinations.

    To perform a desired overall function, large numbers of logic elements may be connected in complex circuits. In some cases microprocessors are utilized to perform many of the switching and timing functions of the individual logic elements. The processors are specifically programmed with individual instructions to perform a given task or tasks. An advantage of microprocessors is that they make possible the performance of different logic functions, depending on the program instructions that are stored. A disadvantage of microprocessors is that normally they operate in a sequential mode, which may be too slow for some applications. In these cases specifically designed logic circuits are used.

    Recent Developments

    The development of integrated circuits has revolutionized the fields of communications, information handling, and computing. Integrated circuits reduce the size of devices and lower manufacturing and system costs, while at the same time providing high speed and increased reliability. Digital watches, hand held computers, and electronic games are systems based on microprocessors. Other developments include the digitalization of audio signals, where the frequency and amplitude of an audio signal are coded digitally by appropriate sampling techniques, that is, techniques for measuring the amplitude of the signal at very short intervals. Digitally recorded music shows a fidelity that is not possible using direct recording methods. Digital playback devices of this nature have already entered the home market. Digital storage could also form the basis of home video systems and may significantly alter library storage systems, because much more information can be stored on a disk for replay on a television screen than can be contained in a book.

    Medical electronics has progressed from computerized axial tomography, or the use of CAT or CT scanners, to systems that can discriminate more and more of the organs of the human body. Devices that can view blood vessels and the respiratory system have been developed as well. Ultrahigh definition television also promises to substitute for many photographic processes, because it eliminates the need for silver.

    Today's research to increase the speed and capacity of computers concentrates mainly on the improvement of integrated circuit technology and the development of even faster switching components. Very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits that contain several hundred thousand components on a single chip have been developed. Very high speed computers are being developed in which semiconductors may be replaced by superconducting circuits using Josephson junctions and operating at temperatures near absolute zero.
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  4. #4  
    Senior Member I Modded My PSP
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    And you really expect nOObs to read that?
    Now Playing And LOVING Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon Advanced Warfighter.
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  5. #5  
    Senior Member I Modded My PSP mofo196's Avatar
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    You should call this "A N00b's Guide to Cut and Paste".

    Microsoft isn't going to be happy when they see you ripped off Encarta.
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  6. #6  
    Senior Member PSP Elite Hacker BLACKOUT's Avatar
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    lol @ u


    it was boring to read, try and condence it into one relavent post.
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  7. #7  
    Senior Member I Modded My PSP Autopsy's Avatar
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    lol i read it.... im a noob... -.- better to have some kind of a guide than no guide at all ^.^

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  8. #8  
    Senior Member I Modded My PSP
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    Now Playing And LOVING Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon Advanced Warfighter.
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  9. #9  
    Senior Member I Modded My PSP nonom's Avatar
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    Screw Microsoft. Yes I took it off of Encarta. So what? I don't fell like typing 10 pages of info that only a few people will be interested in. I'm a very slow typer.
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  10. #10  
    Senior Member I Modded My PSP darkhunter084's Avatar
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    wow that is alot to read.
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